Install linux image amd64

Install linux image amd64

bpo10+1_amd64.deb для архитектуры AMD64

Если вы работаете в Debian, для загрузки и установки пакетов настоятельно советуем использовать менеджер пакетов, например aptitude или synaptic, а не делать это вручную через данный сайт.

Используйте любой из серверов-зеркал, добавив его в свой файл /etc/apt/sources.list , например так:

Заменив ftp.de.debian.org/debian нужным сервером.

Вы можете скачать требуемый файл из подкаталога pool/main/l/linux-signed-amd64/ с любого из этих сайтов:

Если загрузка с этих сайтов происходит медленно, попробуйте другие из полного списка серверов-зеркал.

Заметим, что при работе с некоторыми браузерами вам придётся указать браузеру, что вы хотите сохранить информацию в файл. Например, в Firefox или Mozilla вам нужно удерживать клавишу Shift при щелчке по URL.

Подробней о linux-image-amd64_5.10.127-2

Точный размер 1500 байт (1,5 kByte)
Контрольная сумма MD5
Контрольная сумма SHA1 Недоступно
Контрольная сумма SHA256 5e43c7325e0cedbfe33a3d93bdc1b80666f99d53518a723e284e314b8587b557

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Debian: простое превращение i386 в amd64

Это краткая статья о том, как без переустановки организовать 64-битную архитектуру на вашем 32-битном Debian/Deabian-based дистрибутиве (который вы могли по-невнимательности загрузить вместо 64bit).

* Ваше железо должно изначально поддерживать amd64, магию творить никто не собирается.
* Это может повредить систему, так что действуйте очень осторожно.
* Всё проверялось на Debian10-buster-i386.
* Не делайте этого, если хоть что-то здесь не понимаете.

Dpkg, apt и sources.list

Сразу к делу, если вы сумaсшедший всё взвесили, начинаем подготовку пакетов (в принципе здесь порядок не имеет значения, но по пунктам удобнее)

1. Выбираем amd64 в /etc/apt/sources.list, вставляя ‘ [arch=amd64] ‘ между deb\deb-src и URL

Это нужно для того, чтобы в будущем загружались только 64-х битные пакеты.

2.Добавляем amd64 в dpkg, чтобы он не ругался:

3.Обновляем список пакетов:

Разумеется всё это не имеет смысла без 64-х битного ядра, поэтому устанавливаем его:

Место $VERSION подставить нужную версию ядра.

После установки ядра grub перенастроится автоматически.

Завершение

После перезагрузки наша система уже сможет работать с amd64, но с пакетами могут возникнуть некоторые проблемы. У меня для их решения было достаточно выполнить данные команды:

Хотя сильно на этот счёт беспокоиться тоже не стоит — все нужные пакеты со временем сами установятся как зависимости, а ненужные удаляются так:

Источник

Установка Linux kernel 5.X в Debian 10

Debian Linux известен своей стабильностью и неизменностью. Однако за эту стабильность приходится платить, использованием устаревшего ядра Linux. Если вам нравится идея сохранения стабильности ваших пакетов, но вы любите новые технологии и хотите установить последнюю версию ядра Linux (Kernel 5.x) в Debian 10, следуйте руководству ниже.

Debian 10 поставляется с ядром Linux версии 4.19. Это последний выпуск ядра Linux с долгосрочной поддержкой и самая последняя версия ядра Linux, которую могут получить пользователи Debian 10 Stable.

Установка репозитория backports

Делаем резервную копию sources.list

открываем на редактирование

и добавляем репозиторий backports

обновляем список доступных пакетов

Просмотр списка доступных версий ядра (Linux kernel 5.X)

в результате получим следующий список:

bpo10+1 amd64 [installed]
linux-headers-5.10.0-0.bpo.11-cloud-amd64/buster-backports 5.10.92-1

bpo10+1 amd64
linux-headers-5.10.0-0.bpo.11-rt-amd64/buster-backports 5.10.92-1

bpo10+1 amd64
linux-headers-5.10.0-0.bpo.9-amd64/buster-backports 5.10.70-1

bpo10+1 amd64
linux-headers-5.10.0-0.bpo.9-cloud-amd64/buster-backports 5.10.70-1

bpo10+1 amd64
linux-headers-5.10.0-0.bpo.9-rt-amd64/buster-backports 5.10.70-1

bpo10+1 amd64
linux-image-5.10.0-0.bpo.11-amd64-dbg/buster-backports 5.10.92-1

bpo10+1 amd64
linux-image-5.10.0-0.bpo.11-amd64-unsigned/buster-backports 5.10.92-1

bpo10+1 amd64
linux-image-5.10.0-0.bpo.11-cloud-amd64-dbg/buster-backports 5.10.92-1

bpo10+1 amd64
linux-image-5.10.0-0.bpo.11-cloud-amd64-unsigned/buster-backports 5.10.92-1

bpo10+1 amd64
linux-image-5.10.0-0.bpo.11-rt-amd64-dbg/buster-backports 5.10.92-1

bpo10+1 amd64
linux-image-5.10.0-0.bpo.11-rt-amd64-unsigned/buster-backports 5.10.92-1

bpo10+1 amd64
linux-image-5.10.0-0.bpo.9-amd64/buster-backports 5.10.70-1

bpo10+1 amd64
linux-image-5.10.0-0.bpo.9-amd64-dbg/buster-backports 5.10.70-1

bpo10+1 amd64
linux-image-5.10.0-0.bpo.9-amd64-unsigned/buster-backports 5.10.70-1

bpo10+1 amd64
linux-image-5.10.0-0.bpo.9-cloud-amd64/buster-backports 5.10.70-1

bpo10+1 amd64
linux-image-5.10.0-0.bpo.9-cloud-amd64-dbg/buster-backports 5.10.70-1

bpo10+1 amd64
linux-image-5.10.0-0.bpo.9-cloud-amd64-unsigned/buster-backports 5.10.70-1

bpo10+1 amd64
linux-image-5.10.0-0.bpo.9-rt-amd64/buster-backports 5.10.70-1

bpo10+1 amd64
linux-image-5.10.0-0.bpo.9-rt-amd64-dbg/buster-backports 5.10.70-1

bpo10+1 amd64
linux-image-5.10.0-0.bpo.9-rt-amd64-unsigned/buster-backports 5.10.70-1

Репозиторий содержит несколько типов ядра

  • cloud — для серверных платформ
  • amd64 — для рабочих станций и ноутбуков

Установка kernel 5.X on Debian 10 на рабочей станции

Для установки последней версии ядра на рабочей станции выполняем команду:

по окончанию установки перегружаем рабочую станцию командой

Установка kernel 5.X on Debian 10 на рабочей сервере

Для установки последней версии ядра на сервере выполняем команду:

по окончанию установки перегружаем сервер

Проверка версии ядра Debian

После загрузки сервера проверяем версию ядра командой:

Источник

  • CrossGrading

This page is meant to document the procedure for cross-grading a Debian install using Multiarch.

ToDo: the crossgrader package entered Debian in 2020, using it should be documented on this page.

Pre-requisites

The first Debian release to feature Multiarch is Wheezy, so you will need to upgrade before attempting the procedure described here.

A full backup is also strongly recommended as this procedure is still very much work in progress. Reinstalling is still the safer option. You have been warned!

Steps

These are the steps for converting an i386 install to amd64, but they should be applicable for any other architecture pairs if your machine can run both (e.g. armel and armhf). You can use arch-test to determine which Debian architectures your system can run. You can install qemu-user-static add support for more Debian architectures.

Add the new architecture

Install a kernel that supports both architectures in userland

Make sure you are actually running the new kernel before proceeding with the next steps ( uname -a).

Make sure all packages are in sync between architectures

You need to upgrade first, or otherwise check all the versions of packages to be crossgraded in this step, to make sure all amd64/i386 packages are in version-sync, otherwise the cross-grade will break.

Crossgrade `dpkg` `tar` and `apt`

Get all the packages needed to replace dpkg, tar and apt, then install them for the new architecture. It is changing dpkg that actually ‘counts’ for changing the default arch. Tar has to be replaced with dpkg, not apt otherwise it gets removed then there is no tar to put the new one back with.

Notes 2020-10 Debian sid: —download-only line would need at minimum also libsystemd0. If you didn’t and get errors about missing libsystemd0 and can no longer run apt, you can still download and place libsystemd0 deb in /var/cache/apt/archives/ and run the dpkg —install again to fix the system. The writer of this also needed to do the same for apt-utils and perl-base. After that apt upgrade did not still work but apt install -f worked without needing to type the ‘Yes, do as I say’ (at this point) — but do run apt install -f from a tty, not under X/Wayland, my X crashed in the middle.

Crossgrade all other architecture-dependent packages

If you got this far you are now effectively running amd64, but with mostly i386 packages. You can try to replace them with the corresponding amd64 packages. If that doesn’t work (not all libraries will necessarily have been converted to Multiarch yet) it should be possible to remove the i386 package and install the amd64 version instead.

Before a mass replacement from old to new architectures, if you have packages without installation candidates (from old releases), you may want to first try removing those with

A possible brute-force way to do the swap is

You will have to type in ‘Yes, do as I say’ to get apt to do this, so make sure each package in the warning is actually going to get installed with the new architecture.

Notes 2020-10: I needed to edit the list to remove the pae kernel references and then use that edited list from a file for apt install. You will experience various errors regardless. I needed to for example manually dpkg -i bash and dash, symlink /bin/sh to the existing one a couple of times, and try again and again. Do not expect not needing to do a lot of apt install -f, dpkg —configure -a, manual dpkg -i from /var/cache/apt/archives/ and apt autoremove —purge (to remove replaced :i386 binaries). However using above and these notes I ended up with a functional system and there were big portions that just ran without interruptions.

Another more brutal way to do the swap is

You will have to type in ‘Yes, do as I say’ to get apt to do this.

Once the swap is done, you can remove all the redundant libraries and drop the old architecture with

Caveats and Known Problems

Caution with systemd

systemd may not like being cross-graded, possibly it is safer to cross-grade it from a liveCD. Make sure to cross-grade udev at the same time, otherwise various units will fail.

APT dependency resolver wants to revert apt itself

If the system had packages that depend on apt like apt-utils, it’s possible run into a situation where apt -f install wants to revert apt itself to i386. Aborting and doing another operation apt autoremove will illustrate the reason better:

In such a case, the solution is to temporarily remove apt-utils:i386 from the system, and install apt-utils afterwards. Note: this new apt-utils will be amd64, but once you switch apt to amd64, using the :amd64 suffix will not work.

Apt dependency resolver generates broken solutions

It might happen that apt’s resolver emits an unworkable solution:

In this case you can inspect what packages are marked as Broken and decide what to do:

The KDE desktop environment creates the file

/.config/Trolltech.conf which contains locations of shared libararies and, more problematic, their architecture. This causes panel widgets to crash. The file can apparently be safely removed or renamed to fix these problems.

iamerican (and possibly others/similar)

Similar to KDE, some package(s) (e.g. iamerican on at least Debian 7.5) may have saved caches/hashes that need updating. E.g. encountered:

which then caused updating of: /var/lib/ispell/american.hash

Announce by Guillem Jover, dpkg Maintainer (see «Cross-grading» at the bottom of the message)

i386 to amd64 — Debian 7.5 from i386 to amd64, discussion + links to edited script(1) capture, etc., by Michael Paoli
Articles by Jose M. Calhariz:

Sample cross-grade script

Here is a script to essentially do the above for you. It could do with some work to put in a lot more error checking, but it works OK on a build-essential basic chroot — you may have problems on a more fully-configured real system. Use at your own risk!

Источник

How To Install Debian 11 Bullseye Expert Mode Minimal Install

In this article, I will show you how to do a minimal installation of Debian 11 Bullseye in «Expert Install» mode.

The Debian installer is very flexible. You can easily use the installation media to install Debian as a server or a desktop/laptop. I will go over a minimal installation step by step and include an option to install a desktop environment of your choice. Doing an «Expert Install» will provide you with a few advanced options which allow for better customization of the operating system.

Why Debian?

These are some of the reasons why people install Debian.

  • Very stable and secure
  • Has wide hardware support
  • Is a community project of volunteers around the world
  • Has a flexible installer that allows for customization
  • Upgrades smoothly from one release to the next release

Here are the requirements for Debian 11 Bullseye.

Requirements Minimum Recommended
RAM: 512MB 2GB
Processor (CPU): 1GHz
Hard Drive: 10GB

A minimal installation is great for a server set up. The benefit of setting up a server with a command line interface you will not use a lot of resources.

Here is a server that contains 2 gigabytes of RAM. You see this server is using is only using 61 megabytes of RAM without a graphical user interface!

Exit fullscreen mode

After installing the full Xfce desktop the RAM usage increased to 311 megabytes.

You can use almost any computer for this. If you have some old hardware laying around such as a

  • Desktop
  • Laptop
  • A Mac computer
  • Used server hardware

What can you do with a Linux server? Here are some examples.

  • Private Git server
  • Web server
  • File server with NFS or Samba
  • Media server
  • Database server
  • DNS server
  • NTP server
  • Email server
  • Ad blocker
  • Set up RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks)
  • Explore the GNU/Linux operating system

Installation

Download the amd64 Debian 11 Bullseye firmware-11.3.0-amd64-netinst.iso file from the Debian.org website. Pick the architecture supported by your computer. For example, if your computer is really old it might not support 64-bit (amd64). In that case, you will need the 32-bit ISO (i386) file.

If you need non-free firmware to have drivers to set up for hardware such as WiFi use this ISO file to install Debian.

firmware-11.3.0-amd64-netinst.iso
(Recommended — includes non-free firmware)

Install the ISO file to a USB flash drive using one of these tools.

If have Linux installed already you can run the dd command to install the ISO to the USB flash drive.
WARNING!! If you use dd make sure you write to the correct /dev/sdX drive.

I list my drives in the computer like this.

Exit fullscreen mode

On my computer the flash drive is /dev/sdc so I run this command.

Exit fullscreen mode

Find out how to boot off of the USB flash drive. Every manufacture has a different key to press to get to the boot menu. On my computer I press the F12 key to select the boot menu.

Once you boot off of the USB flash drive the installation menu will come up.
Select «Advanced options».

Select «Expert Install».

Choose a language.

I am choosing English because that is one of the languages I speak.

Select your location to set the correct time zone.

The locale sets character encoding, date and time formatting, currency, default paper size, etc. The default setting should be fine. For US English the default is «en_US.UTF-8». No need to change this setting.

You have the option to add additional locales here if you need them. I will use the default «en_US.UTF-8» set on the previous page. Press «Continue».

Here you can select the keyboard layout of your preference such as Dvorak. I will stick with the default «American English» here.

Time to detect the installation media which is the USB flash drive that you booted off earlier.

Installer components get loaded from the USB installation media.

Optional specialized components can be selected here if you need them. By default nothing is selected. Press «Continue».

Network hardware will be detected here.

Configure the network connection.

Select «Yes» to set the IP address using DHCP (Dynamic Host Control Protocol). This is recommended for a desktop/laptop. If you select «Yes», skip the «For a static IP» section. The IP address will be configured via DHCP and you will move on to setting the hostname.

Select «No» to set a static IP address. A static IP address is recommended for a server.

For a static IP I set my IP address to 192.168.12.34 since I know that will work on my network.

For a static IP I set the netmask to /24 which is 255.255.255.0 .

For a static IP I set the gateway to 192.168.12.1 because that is the gateway of my network.

For a static IP I set three public DNS (Domain name servers) using a space as a delimiter.

1.1.1.1 208.67.222.222 8.8.8.8 linux-image-amd64 is the kernel generic package.
linux-image-5.10.0-8-amd64 will just specify the exact version.

Select «generic: include all available drivers» to make sure you install the drivers you need.

Configure the package manager.

This option allows you to scan for extra installation media such as a DVD. We only have the USB we are using to install the operating system. Select «No» to scan extra installation media. Extra programs can be installed from a network mirror.

Select «Yes» to use a network mirror. This will connect us to a online repository to access more software than what is on the installation USB.

Pick a network mirror that is closest to you for the fastest download.

Leave HTTP proxy information blank and select «Continue» unless you know you are using a proxy.

Select use «non-free» software. Recommended for a desktop/laptop.

Source repositiories in APT will allow you to download the source code for packages. You can select «No» here. This can be enabled easily in /etc/apt/sources.list later if you want.

It is recommended to install security updates. Click «Continue».

Select and install software.

It is your choice to have security updates installed automatically using the unattended-upgrades package. The default setting is to not run automatic security updates.

You can join the package survey if you wish here.

For a minimal Debian install I have deselected everything here except for «standard system utilities». This will provide you with a lean system that is not resource hungry. Remember other packages can be installed later.

Install GRUB to the boot loader of the hard disk.

Select «Yes» to install GRUB to the primary drive.

I have one drive in the computer, /dev/sda. I will select that option instead of entering it manually.

Select «Yes» to force GRUB installation to the EFI removable media path to a fallback location just in case the EFI firmware does not meet the EFI specification.

Click «Enter» to finish the installation.

Click «Yes» to set the system clock to UTC.

If you wanted to set up a server, once you get to this point reboot the computer and your Debian installation is finished.

If you only wanted a minimal server you are done with the installation process. Click «Continue» to reboot. Remember to remove the USB flash drive installation media. Upon reboot you will be presented with this splash screen.

How to add a desktop environment

If you wanted a graphical user interface sign in and install the desktop of your choice. You have many desktop options such as Xfce, Gnome, KDE, Mate, LXDE. See task-xfce-desktop task-gnome-desktop task-kde-desktop etc.

To install the Xfce desktop run these commands.

Exit fullscreen mode

After logging in you will be presented with the Xfce desktop.

Conclusion

I have shown you how to expert install of Debian 11 Bullseye step by step.
You will be now able to use Debian’s flexible installer to install a minimal server or a desktop/laptop.

Thank you for reading my article.

Follow me on Dev.to and Github.

Please feel free to leave comments, questions, and suggestions.

Источник

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