Python печать файла на принтере

Автоматизируем печать документов с помощью Python

Печать Word и PDF, используя двухсторонний принтер и автоматическая систематизация страниц в PDF, c помощью Python

Обзор

1) Начало
2) Задача
3) Решение
4) Вывод

Начало

Меня зовут, Матвеев Дмитрий, и я работаю в Синергии.

Каждый день, я готовлю однообразные документы, в которых нужно печатать страницы — одинаково (однообразно):
1 (ую) и 2 (ую) страницы, двойной печатью по длинному краю;
3 (ью) и 4 (ую) по короткому краю (эти листы горизонтальные);
5 (ую) страницу отдельно (только 1 лист).

Каждый день, из раза в раз, нужно было настраивать диапазон для печатати. И в один момент (спустя 3 дня) мне это надоело и я решил написать программу, с помощью которой можно будет распечатать этот документ — одним нажатием мыши.

Спойлер — мне удалось. Но пришлось поискать информацию, а информации на русском не очень много, поэтому искал преимущественно в английских источниках.

Задача

В начале у меня были Word документы и их нужно распечатать максимально экономно и этично, чтобы не просто печатать весь документ в разнобой, а используя свои подходы на печать.

Решение

Из Word в PDF

Для начала преобразуем Word документы в отдельные PDF файлы, для этого устанавливаем следящую библиотеку:

И пишем код для конвертации. Для этого собираем все «.docx» файлы в папке, преобразуем их в PDF и нам требуется условие на проверку файла.

Если «.docx» есть в названии файла, то конвертируем, иначе пропускаем файлы. Нужно для того, чтобы сами pdf файлы не конвертировались в pdf (вылезет ошибка).

Систематизация страниц

Далее устанавливаем библиотеку для редактирования страниц в pdf:

Пишем функцию для чтения и систематизации документа на под файлы т.к используя эту библиотеку, мы будет удалять из нашего файла страницы, то пишем функцию для более удобного удаления:

Сохранение новых файлов

Т.е из документа «doc_path», мы оставляем промежуток страниц с 1 по 2 и сохраняем с именем ‘Титульный лист.pdf’ и так для каждого файла

Печать документов

Для работы с принтерами установим следующую библиотеку

Далее пишем функцию для печати т.к мы ее будем вызывать для каждого нужного файла

Полный код c переделкой на работу с php сервером:

Вывод

Сразу про минусы:
принтеры не всегда меняются (т.е печатает, только, 1 принтер), разбираюсь почему.

Плюсы т.к мне не нужно постоянно вбивать диапазон страниц, освобождается куча времени, на саморазвитие)

Прощу, раскритиковать мой говнокод и поделится своим мнением о автоматизации печати (как вы это делали) или была ли моя статья полезно для вас

Это моя первая статья, поэтому давайте пожестче

P.S Документы генерирую на php форме с php сервера, на котором запускаю Python скрипт, с помощью php формы

Источник

Печатаем документ в виде чека с помощью Python и Parse

Не так давно передо мной встала задача: распечатка документа определенного формата с помощью мобильного устройства. На телефоне должны были вводиться определенные значения, отправляться на сервер (для того, чтобы потом можно было использовать эти данные на веб сайте) и печать документ с этими данными. С самого начала мой выбор пал на Google cloud print, так как он максимально прост в использовании и решении подобных задач. Но при использовании этого варианта есть несколько недостатков:

  • Очень медленная обработка запроса
  • Нужно где-то формировать PDF документ и возвращать ссылку на него
  • Постоянно нужно выбирать принтер (если у вас подключен только один принтер к Google cloud print, то все равно нужно выбирать между ним и сохранением на Google Drive)

Поэтому я решил написать свой скрипт для подобных операций.

Мой выбор пал на язык программирования Python, так как он наиболее гибкий и подходит для данных задач. В своей разработке я использовал ОС Ubuntu Linux. Так что установка библиотек будет представлена для нее.

С самого начала нам нужно научиться формировать PDF документ. Проще всего конвертировать HTML разметку в PDF с помощью библиотеки xhtml2pdf. Для начала установим необходимые пакеты:

python-cups – это библиотека, с помощью которой Python может работать с вашим принтером, python-pip сделает установку xhtml2pdf проще.

Дальше устанавливаем xhtml2pdf:

Следующий код покажет, как все работает:

Тут все предельно просто и понятно. Картинки можно вставлять обычным HTML кодом:

Но возникает вопрос: «Где хранить данные и откуда их достать для распечатки?«.

Для этого мы воспользуемся сервисом Parse. Это хорошее бесплатное облако, для хранения ваших данных. Его удобно использовать тем, что оно работает практически на всех платформах (Грубо говоря: вы можете добавить закинуть данные на облако с Android устройства, а достать на IOS, PHP, JavaScript и других платформах).

Специально для Python там есть REST API, с помощью которого можно слать любые запросы в несколько строчек. Для того, чтобы достать их с Pars’a используем код:

Здесь yourAppId – это ключ к вашему приложению, а yourRestApiKey – ключ к Api, которое вы используете. Детальнее читайте на сайте. Дальше массив result обрабатываете как JSON обьект и можете вставлять в вашу HTML страницу, которая тут же пойдет на печать.

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Если возникнут какие-то вопросы, подсказки или вы просто решите высказать свое мнение по поводу статьи — пишите в комментариях. Всех с наступающим Новым Годом!

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Python печать файла на принтере

python connected to the printer for printing, may vary according to different needs, a different function modules.

  1. If you simply want to print a document, such as office documents, you can use ShellExecute Methods for Microsoft office documents, pdf, txt and so helpful, you can try;
  2. If you enter some data, text messages, wanted to send it directly to the printer, you can try to use win32print ;
  3. If you have a picture, you can combine the python Python Imaging Library(PIL) with win32ui Module for printing;

Ordinary print

ShellExecute

  • First make sure you use your computer can open the file you want to print;
  • Are some of the standard file types
  • Do not control which printers, and printer model that is independent of the connection;
  • You set the print properties uncontrolled authority;

Direct print data

win32print

  • Throw the printer directly to the data;
  • Quick and easy;
  • And you can choose which printer is defined;
  • However, data to be printed must be printed, for example, string and the like;

PIL win32ui

Without the use of additional tools, print a picture on a windows computer is quite difficult and requires at least three different and related equipment environment can.
Fortunately, device-independent bitmap(DIB) with PIL It can help us to quickly print. The following code can be sent to the printer to print images as large as possible without losing the size and proportion.

  • You can also choose which printer
  • Select loaded Picture format
  • But if you’re computer is not windows, it may not be the best approach;

Above game for two Jun finishing release, please indicate the source, thank you.

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7. Input and Output¶

There are several ways to present the output of a program; data can be printed in a human-readable form, or written to a file for future use. This chapter will discuss some of the possibilities.

7.1. Fancier Output Formatting¶

So far we’ve encountered two ways of writing values: expression statements and the print() function. (A third way is using the write() method of file objects; the standard output file can be referenced as sys.stdout . See the Library Reference for more information on this.)

Often you’ll want more control over the formatting of your output than simply printing space-separated values. There are several ways to format output.

To use formatted string literals , begin a string with f or F before the opening quotation mark or triple quotation mark. Inside this string, you can write a Python expression between < and >characters that can refer to variables or literal values.

The str.format() method of strings requires more manual effort. You’ll still use < and >to mark where a variable will be substituted and can provide detailed formatting directives, but you’ll also need to provide the information to be formatted.

Finally, you can do all the string handling yourself by using string slicing and concatenation operations to create any layout you can imagine. The string type has some methods that perform useful operations for padding strings to a given column width.

When you don’t need fancy output but just want a quick display of some variables for debugging purposes, you can convert any value to a string with the repr() or str() functions.

The str() function is meant to return representations of values which are fairly human-readable, while repr() is meant to generate representations which can be read by the interpreter (or will force a SyntaxError if there is no equivalent syntax). For objects which don’t have a particular representation for human consumption, str() will return the same value as repr() . Many values, such as numbers or structures like lists and dictionaries, have the same representation using either function. Strings, in particular, have two distinct representations.

The string module contains a Template class that offers yet another way to substitute values into strings, using placeholders like $x and replacing them with values from a dictionary, but offers much less control of the formatting.

7.1.1. Formatted String Literals¶

Formatted string literals (also called f-strings for short) let you include the value of Python expressions inside a string by prefixing the string with f or F and writing expressions as .

An optional format specifier can follow the expression. This allows greater control over how the value is formatted. The following example rounds pi to three places after the decimal:

Passing an integer after the ‘:’ will cause that field to be a minimum number of characters wide. This is useful for making columns line up.

Other modifiers can be used to convert the value before it is formatted. ‘!a’ applies ascii() , ‘!s’ applies str() , and ‘!r’ applies repr() :

The = specifier can be used to expand an expression to the text of the expression, an equal sign, then the representation of the evaluated expression:

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See self-documenting expressions for more information on the = specifier. For a reference on these format specifications, see the reference guide for the Format Specification Mini-Language .

7.1.2. The String format() Method¶

Basic usage of the str.format() method looks like this:

The brackets and characters within them (called format fields) are replaced with the objects passed into the str.format() method. A number in the brackets can be used to refer to the position of the object passed into the str.format() method.

If keyword arguments are used in the str.format() method, their values are referred to by using the name of the argument.

Positional and keyword arguments can be arbitrarily combined:

If you have a really long format string that you don’t want to split up, it would be nice if you could reference the variables to be formatted by name instead of by position. This can be done by simply passing the dict and using square brackets ‘[]’ to access the keys.

This could also be done by passing the table dictionary as keyword arguments with the ** notation.

This is particularly useful in combination with the built-in function vars() , which returns a dictionary containing all local variables.

As an example, the following lines produce a tidily aligned set of columns giving integers and their squares and cubes:

For a complete overview of string formatting with str.format() , see Format String Syntax .

7.1.3. Manual String Formatting¶

Here’s the same table of squares and cubes, formatted manually:

(Note that the one space between each column was added by the way print() works: it always adds spaces between its arguments.)

The str.rjust() method of string objects right-justifies a string in a field of a given width by padding it with spaces on the left. There are similar methods str.ljust() and str.center() . These methods do not write anything, they just return a new string. If the input string is too long, they don’t truncate it, but return it unchanged; this will mess up your column lay-out but that’s usually better than the alternative, which would be lying about a value. (If you really want truncation you can always add a slice operation, as in x.ljust(n)[:n] .)

There is another method, str.zfill() , which pads a numeric string on the left with zeros. It understands about plus and minus signs:

7.1.4. Old string formatting¶

The % operator (modulo) can also be used for string formatting. Given ‘string’ % values , instances of % in string are replaced with zero or more elements of values . This operation is commonly known as string interpolation. For example:

More information can be found in the printf-style String Formatting section.

7.2. Reading and Writing Files¶

open() returns a file object , and is most commonly used with two positional arguments and one keyword argument: open(filename, mode, encoding=None)

The first argument is a string containing the filename. The second argument is another string containing a few characters describing the way in which the file will be used. mode can be ‘r’ when the file will only be read, ‘w’ for only writing (an existing file with the same name will be erased), and ‘a’ opens the file for appending; any data written to the file is automatically added to the end. ‘r+’ opens the file for both reading and writing. The mode argument is optional; ‘r’ will be assumed if it’s omitted.

Normally, files are opened in text mode, that means, you read and write strings from and to the file, which are encoded in a specific encoding. If encoding is not specified, the default is platform dependent (see open() ). Because UTF-8 is the modern de-facto standard, encoding=»utf-8″ is recommended unless you know that you need to use a different encoding. Appending a ‘b’ to the mode opens the file in binary mode. Binary mode data is read and written as bytes objects. You can not specify encoding when opening file in binary mode.

In text mode, the default when reading is to convert platform-specific line endings ( \n on Unix, \r\n on Windows) to just \n . When writing in text mode, the default is to convert occurrences of \n back to platform-specific line endings. This behind-the-scenes modification to file data is fine for text files, but will corrupt binary data like that in JPEG or EXE files. Be very careful to use binary mode when reading and writing such files.

It is good practice to use the with keyword when dealing with file objects. The advantage is that the file is properly closed after its suite finishes, even if an exception is raised at some point. Using with is also much shorter than writing equivalent try — finally blocks:

If you’re not using the with keyword, then you should call f.close() to close the file and immediately free up any system resources used by it.

Calling f.write() without using the with keyword or calling f.close() might result in the arguments of f.write() not being completely written to the disk, even if the program exits successfully.

After a file object is closed, either by a with statement or by calling f.close() , attempts to use the file object will automatically fail.

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7.2.1. Methods of File Objects¶

The rest of the examples in this section will assume that a file object called f has already been created.

To read a file’s contents, call f.read(size) , which reads some quantity of data and returns it as a string (in text mode) or bytes object (in binary mode). size is an optional numeric argument. When size is omitted or negative, the entire contents of the file will be read and returned; it’s your problem if the file is twice as large as your machine’s memory. Otherwise, at most size characters (in text mode) or size bytes (in binary mode) are read and returned. If the end of the file has been reached, f.read() will return an empty string ( » ).

f.readline() reads a single line from the file; a newline character ( \n ) is left at the end of the string, and is only omitted on the last line of the file if the file doesn’t end in a newline. This makes the return value unambiguous; if f.readline() returns an empty string, the end of the file has been reached, while a blank line is represented by ‘\n’ , a string containing only a single newline.

For reading lines from a file, you can loop over the file object. This is memory efficient, fast, and leads to simple code:

If you want to read all the lines of a file in a list you can also use list(f) or f.readlines() .

f.write(string) writes the contents of string to the file, returning the number of characters written.

Other types of objects need to be converted – either to a string (in text mode) or a bytes object (in binary mode) – before writing them:

f.tell() returns an integer giving the file object’s current position in the file represented as number of bytes from the beginning of the file when in binary mode and an opaque number when in text mode.

To change the file object’s position, use f.seek(offset, whence) . The position is computed from adding offset to a reference point; the reference point is selected by the whence argument. A whence value of 0 measures from the beginning of the file, 1 uses the current file position, and 2 uses the end of the file as the reference point. whence can be omitted and defaults to 0, using the beginning of the file as the reference point.

In text files (those opened without a b in the mode string), only seeks relative to the beginning of the file are allowed (the exception being seeking to the very file end with seek(0, 2) ) and the only valid offset values are those returned from the f.tell() , or zero. Any other offset value produces undefined behaviour.

File objects have some additional methods, such as isatty() and truncate() which are less frequently used; consult the Library Reference for a complete guide to file objects.

7.2.2. Saving structured data with json В¶

Strings can easily be written to and read from a file. Numbers take a bit more effort, since the read() method only returns strings, which will have to be passed to a function like int() , which takes a string like ‘123’ and returns its numeric value 123. When you want to save more complex data types like nested lists and dictionaries, parsing and serializing by hand becomes complicated.

Rather than having users constantly writing and debugging code to save complicated data types to files, Python allows you to use the popular data interchange format called JSON (JavaScript Object Notation). The standard module called json can take Python data hierarchies, and convert them to string representations; this process is called serializing. Reconstructing the data from the string representation is called deserializing. Between serializing and deserializing, the string representing the object may have been stored in a file or data, or sent over a network connection to some distant machine.

The JSON format is commonly used by modern applications to allow for data exchange. Many programmers are already familiar with it, which makes it a good choice for interoperability.

If you have an object x , you can view its JSON string representation with a simple line of code:

Another variant of the dumps() function, called dump() , simply serializes the object to a text file . So if f is a text file object opened for writing, we can do this:

To decode the object again, if f is a binary file or text file object which has been opened for reading:

JSON files must be encoded in UTF-8. Use encoding=»utf-8″ when opening JSON file as a text file for both of reading and writing.

This simple serialization technique can handle lists and dictionaries, but serializing arbitrary class instances in JSON requires a bit of extra effort. The reference for the json module contains an explanation of this.

pickle — the pickle module

Contrary to JSON , pickle is a protocol which allows the serialization of arbitrarily complex Python objects. As such, it is specific to Python and cannot be used to communicate with applications written in other languages. It is also insecure by default: deserializing pickle data coming from an untrusted source can execute arbitrary code, if the data was crafted by a skilled attacker.

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